woman on a beach surrounded by UK coastal plants

12 Wonderful UK Coastal Plants To Bring The Beach To You

Welcome to our exploration of the fascinating world of UK coastal plants. These remarkable florae, adapted to thrive in dynamic and challenging coastal environments, have captured the hearts of gardeners, nature enthusiasts, and culinary adventurers. This article will uncover these coastal plants’ resilience, beauty, and hidden treasures, offering a glimpse into their historical origins, practical benefits, and cultivation tips. In addition, we have some tremendous seaside plants for beach beauty and some tasty edible coastal plants to spruce up your culinary adventures. So, whether you have a coastal garden or wish to embrace the charm of the seaside in your landscape, we have the perfect UK coastal plants to celebrate the unique wonders of these plants. 

1. Pine Trees

pine trees grown as coastal plants

Pine trees, belonging to the Pinus genus, are wonderful UK coastal plants to start off our list, offering aesthetic appeal and resilience in coastal environments. These evergreen trees have existed for millions of years and symbolise strength and endurance. They are common across Europe, North America, and Asia.

The adaptability of pine trees makes them well-suited for our list of UK coastal plants. They have natural defences against salt-laden winds, sandy soils, and harsh conditions. Benefits of planting pine trees in coastal areas include:

  • Their ability to act as windbreaks.
  • Protecting more delicate plants in the garden.
  • Their salt tolerance.
  • Their role in soil stabilisation.

To grow pine trees successfully in coastal gardens, follow these essential steps:

  1. Soil Conditions – Pine trees prefer well-draining, slightly acidic soils. Sandy or loamy soils are ideal but can adapt to various soil types, even those with higher salt content. Ensure the planting location provides adequate drainage.
  2. Sunlight – Pine trees thrive in full sun exposure, requiring a minimum of six hours of direct sunlight per day. Choose a planting site with ample sunlight where larger structures or trees will not overshadow it.
  3. Planting – Dig a hole that is wider and slightly shallower than the root ball of the pine tree. Place the tree in the hole, making sure it stands straight. Backfill the hole with the soil, gently firming it around the roots.
  4. Watering – While pine trees are generally drought-tolerant, newly planted ones require regular watering until their root systems establish. Water deeply but infrequently, allowing the soil to dry out slightly between waterings. Once established, they can withstand drier conditions typical of coastal areas.
  5. Mulching – Apply a layer of organic mulch around the tree’s base, extending it to the drip line. This helps conserve moisture, suppresses weeds, and regulates soil temperature.
  6. Pruning and Maintenance – Prune any damaged or diseased branches to maintain the tree’s health and shape. Regularly inspect for pests and diseases, taking appropriate measures if necessary.

2. Common Gorse

flowers on common gorse coastal plants

Common Gorse (Ulex Europaeus) is one of the most popular UK coastal plants with its vibrant yellow flowers and spiky foliage. However, it has a long-standing presence in coastal regions across Europe, North America, and parts of Africa and a rich history across these countries, with references dating back centuries.

Their soil adaptability and tolerance to salt and wind ensure that these plants will thrive in coastal gardens. Additionally, Common Gorse flowers have excellent erosion control, their deep-rooted nature contributing to the overall health of the coastal ecosystem. But one of the biggest benefits of planting Common Gorse among UK coastal plants is the food and shelter it provides for a range of birds, including the yellowhammer and stonechat.

Read more on plants that attract birds.

To successfully grow Common Gorse in your coastal garden, follow these guidelines:

  • Soil Conditions – Common Gorse thrives in well-draining soils with a pH range of slightly acidic to slightly alkaline. Sandy or loamy soils are ideal, but they can adapt to a variety of soil types found in coastal regions.
  • Sunlight – Common Gorse requires full sun exposure to ensure healthy growth and abundant flowering. Choose a planting location that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight daily.
  • Watering Needs – Once established, Common Gorse is highly drought-tolerant and requires minimal watering. However, regular watering is essential during the establishment phase to help the plant develop a robust root system. Afterwards, it can rely primarily on natural rainfall in coastal areas.
  • Pruning – Prune Common Gorse after flowering to maintain shape and promote bushier growth. Be cautious while pruning due to the plant’s spiky nature, and use appropriate protective gear.

3. Seaweed

seaweed growing under water

Seaweed has been an integral part of marine ecosystems for millions of years. Originating in the oceans, these marine plants have evolved into a diverse range of species found worldwide. They play a crucial role in marine ecosystems, providing habitat and food and contributing to nutrient cycling. 

Seaweed thrives in coastal gardens and coastal areas for several reasons, including its tolerance to seawater, ability to absorb and store carbon dioxide and capacity to use the natural nutrients from seawater. Plus, it is one of the most common (and tastiest) edible coastal plants, a must-have inclusion in your garden! 

Growing seaweed in coastal gardens requires careful consideration of a few key factors. Firstly, select seaweed species that are suitable for your region and the specific conditions of your garden. Some common edible varieties include nori, dulse, and kelp. Seaweed typically attaches itself to rocks or other stable substrates in its natural habitat, so it is important to provide suitable anchoring points in your garden. You can use ropes, nets, or other structures to provide support for the seaweed to attach to.

Seaweed cultivation also requires access to seawater. You can utilise the natural seawater supply if your garden is near the coast. However, for gardens inland, you can create artificial seawater by dissolving sea salt in freshwater to mimic the necessary salinity levels. Monitoring water quality, salinity, and temperature ensures optimal seaweed growth.

4. Sea Thrift

flowers of sea thrift UK coastal plants

Several plantings of Sea Thrift, or Armeria Maritima, make for charming UK coastal plants, which are particularly beneficial in coastal gardens. It is native to coastal regions of Europe, particularly in rocky and sandy coastal habitats. Sea Thrift’s resilience, ability to thrive in challenging coastal conditions and unique beauty makes it a popular choice for coastal gardens.

The dense, grass-like foliage of Sea Thrift provides a natural windbreak and helps protect other more delicate plants in the garden. Additionally, Sea Thrift’s ability to withstand salt exposure makes it an ideal choice for gardens near the coast.

To grow Sea Thrift successfully in a coastal garden, consider the following guidelines:

  • Soil Conditions – Sea Thrift prefers well-draining soils, including sandy or rocky soils commonly found in coastal areas. It can tolerate various soil pH levels, from slightly acidic to alkaline. Amending the soil with organic matter can improve drainage and provide essential nutrients.
  • Sunlight – Sea Thrift thrives in full sun to partial shade. Ensure it receives at least six hours of direct sunlight daily for optimal growth and abundant flowering.
  • Watering Needs – Sea Thrift is drought-tolerant once established, making it suitable for coastal gardens where water availability may be limited. Water newly planted Sea Thrift regularly to help establish its root system, but be cautious not to overwater, as excessive moisture can lead to root rot.
  • Pruning – Sea Thrift benefits from occasional pruning to maintain its shape and promote healthy growth. After the first flowering, remove spent flower stalks to encourage reblooming and prevent self-seeding.
  • Propagation – You can propagate Sea Thrift through division or by collecting and planting seeds. Ideally, you should divide in spring or early autumn, ensuring each divided clump has sufficient roots. Then, you can sow seeds in well-draining soil and kept moist until germination occurs.

5. Sea Kale

sea kale growing in the ground

Sea Kale, scientifically known as Crambe Maritima, is a fascinating coastal plant native to coastal regions of Europe. It grows naturally along coastal cliffs, dunes, and shingle beaches, showcasing its remarkable adaptability to harsh coastal conditions. Also, it has a long history of use as a culinary and medicinal plant. 

These species of plants have gained popularity as ornamental and edible coastal plants due to their attractive foliage and delicious edible shoots. In addition, it is highly tolerant of salt spray, wind, and poor soil conditions commonly found in coastal areas. Its thick, waxy leaves protect against salt-laden winds and reduce water loss, making it an excellent choice for gardens near the coast. Furthermore, Sea Kale’s deep root system helps stabilise coastal soils and contributes to erosion control.

To grow Sea Kale successfully in a coastal garden, you should prepare the following:

  • Soil Conditions – Sea Kale thrives in well-draining, sandy or sandy loam soils. It prefers alkaline to slightly acidic soil pH. If the soil is heavy or poorly drained, consider amending it with organic matter to improve drainage.
  • Sunlight – Sea Kale performs best in full sun to partial shade. It requires at least six hours of direct sunlight daily for optimal growth and development.
  • Planting – Start Sea Kale from either seeds or bare-root crowns. Plant seeds in early spring, either directly in the ground or in seed trays for later transplanting. Bare-root crowns can be planted in spring or autumn, ensuring the roots are well-established in the soil.
  • Watering Needs – While Sea Kale is relatively drought-tolerant once established, regular watering is crucial during the initial growth stage. Water deeply and consistently to promote healthy root development. Once established, Sea Kale can tolerate dry conditions but benefits from occasional watering during prolonged drought periods.
  • Mulching and Weed Control – Apply a layer of organic mulch around Sea Kale plants to conserve soil moisture and suppress weed growth. Regularly monitor and remove weeds around the plants to prevent competition for nutrients and water.
  • Harvesting – You can harvest Sea Kale in spring when the tender shoots emerge. Cut the shoots close to the base, leaving enough foliage for the plant’s energy production and growth. Avoid over-harvesting to allow the plant to continue producing shoots throughout the season.

6. Marram Grass

marram grass field

Marram Grass, scientifically known as Ammophila spp., is a resilient coastal plant native to Europe, North America, Australia and other coastal areas worldwide. Throughout history, people have used Marram Grass to stabilise sand dunes and coastal landscapes as it is well-adapted to the harsh conditions in coastal regions.

Besides sand and soil stabilisation, Marram Grass is tolerant of salt spray and strong winds and can trap and bind sand particles to maintain the integrity of coastal ecosystems.  

To grow Marram Grass successfully in a coastal garden, you’ll need to keep on top of the following:

  • Soil Conditions – Marram Grass thrives in sandy soils with good drainage. Sandy or loamy soils are ideal for their growth. Prepare the soil by removing any debris and weeds before planting.
  • Sunlight – Marram Grass requires full sun to thrive. Ensure it receives at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight daily.
  • Planting – Plant Marram Grass in early spring or autumn, allowing it enough time to establish its roots before extreme weather conditions. Space the plants about 30-45 cm (12-18 inches) apart for proper growth and spread.
  • Watering Needs – Marram Grass is drought-tolerant once established. However, regular watering during the initial growth stage is essential for root development. Once established, it can rely on natural rainfall and the moisture in coastal environments.
  • Maintenance – Marram Grass does not require pruning or trimming unless you want to manage its spread or remove old or damaged foliage. Avoid excessive disturbance around the plants to maintain stability and minimise erosion risks.

7. Pampas Grass

flower heads of pampas grass

Pampas Grass (Cortaderia Selloana) is a majestic ornamental grass from South America. It is native to the grasslands of this continent, particularly Argentina, Brazil, and Uruguay. However, it has a history of landscaping use in Europe due to its impressive stature and striking plume-like flower heads. Over time, it has gained popularity when discussing UK coastal plants, thanks to its ability to thrive in coastal environments.

Pampas Grass plays a crucial role in erosion control. Its extensive root system helps stabilise soil, preventing erosion and protecting the landscape against the forces of wind and water. In addition, it exhibits exceptional coastal adaptability, making it well-suited for gardens near the coast. It can endure salt spray, strong winds, and sandy soils, which are typical characteristics of coastal regions.

Here’s what you’ll need to grow Pampas Grass successfully:

  • Soil Conditions – Pampas Grass prefers well-draining soil, but it can tolerate a range of soil types, including sandy or loamy soils commonly found in coastal areas. Ensure the soil has good drainage to prevent waterlogging.
  • Sunlight – Pampas Grass thrives in full sun. Provide at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight daily to promote healthy growth and abundant flowering.
  • Planting – Plant Pampas Grass in spring or early summer when the soil has warmed up. Dig a hole wider and deeper than the plant’s root ball to accommodate the roots. Space multiple plants several feet apart to allow for proper growth and airflow.
  • Watering – Pampas Grass is relatively drought-tolerant once established. However, regular watering is necessary during the initial establishment period to encourage root development. Afterwards, it can rely on natural rainfall, but you may need to complete supplemental watering during prolonged dry spells.
  • Pruning – Pruning Pampas Grass is necessary to maintain its attractive appearance and prevent self-seeding. In late winter or early spring, cut back the foliage close to the ground before new growth emerges. Be cautious of the sharp leaf edges and wear protective gloves and clothing.

8. Crocosmia

a flower of the crocosmia coastal plants

Crocosmia belongs to the Iris family and is known for growing in the grasslands and mountains of South Africa. It has a long history as an ornamental plant and is popular worldwide due to its vibrant blooms and ability to thrive in various climates. In addition, Crocosmia’s striking appearance and adaptability make it one of the most desirable UK coastal plants. 

This coastal plant’s ability to withstand these elements allows it to flourish and contribute to the beauty of coastal landscapes. Plus, the vibrant shades of red, orange, and yellow in its trumpet-shaped flowers create a striking visual display, adding a burst of colour to your coastal garden. However, one of Crocosmia’s main benefits is its low maintenance, requiring minimal care once established and exhibiting tolerance to drought. 

  • Soil Conditions – Crocosmia prefers well-draining soil. Sandy or loamy soils commonly found in coastal areas are suitable. If the soil is heavy or poorly drained, amend it with organic matter, such as compost, to improve drainage and fertility.
  • Sunlight – Crocosmia thrives in full sun to partial shade. Ensure it receives at least six hours of direct sunlight daily for optimal growth and abundant blooms.
  • Planting – Plant Crocosmia corms are underground storage organs in spring or early autumn. Dig a hole about three times the size of the corm and plant it with the pointed side facing upwards. Space multiple corms several inches apart to allow for proper growth and airflow.
  • Watering Needs – While Crocosmia is drought-tolerant once established, regular watering during the initial growth stage is essential for root development. Water deeply and consistently, allowing the soil to dry slightly between waterings. Once established, it can rely on natural rainfall, but you may have to water more during prolonged dry spells.
  • Mulching and Fertilising – Apply a layer of organic mulch around Crocosmia plants to conserve soil moisture, suppress weed growth, and provide some insulation. Avoid mulching directly against the stems to prevent rot. Additionally, you can apply a balanced fertiliser in early spring to promote healthy growth and blooming.

9. Cynara

the flowers of artichoke UK coastal plants

Cynara, commonly known as artichoke, is native to the Mediterranean region, where Mediterraneans have cultivated it for centuries for its edible flower buds and nutritious leaves. It has a long history of cultivation, and people have spread it to various parts of the world due to its culinary and ornamental value. In addition, Cynara’s origins in coastal Mediterranean regions make it naturally adapted to coastal environments, making it an excellent choice for coastal gardens.

One of the primary reasons why Cynara works well in coastal gardens is its remarkable salt tolerance. It can withstand salt spray and saline soils, common characteristics of coastal regions that can be challenging for other plants. Not only does Cynara possess practical advantages, but it is also one of the most common edible coastal plants. Its unique flower buds, known as artichokes, are a delicious culinary treat and add an intriguing visual element to the garden. Cynara’s striking, thistle-like flowers contribute elegance and sophistication to coastal gardens, making it a versatile plant that combines aesthetic and gastronomic appeal.

To grow Cynara successfully in a coastal garden, consider the following guidelines:

  • Soil Conditions – Cynara prefers well-draining soil with a pH of 6.0 and 7.5. Sandy or loamy soils are suitable for their growth. If the soil is heavy or poorly drained, amending it with organic matter, such as compost, can improve its structure and drainage.
  • Sunlight – Cynara thrives in full sun. Provide at least six to eight hours of direct sunlight daily to promote healthy growth and abundant flowering.
  • Planting – Plant Cynara in early spring when the soil has warmed up. Start with healthy seedlings or young plants obtained from a reputable nursery. Space the plants about 90-120 cm (36-48 inches) apart to allow for their spreading growth habit.
  • Watering Needs – While Cynara is relatively drought-tolerant, it requires regular watering during the growing season, especially during dry periods. Water deeply and evenly, allowing the soil to dry slightly between waterings. Avoid overwatering, as excessive moisture can lead to root rot.
  • Maintenance – To promote continuous growth and harvest, remove any spent flower heads and encourage new shoots to develop. Mulching around the plants can help conserve moisture and suppress weed growth. Additionally, feeding the plants with a balanced fertiliser during the growing season can enhance their overall health and productivity.

10. Hemerocallis

Hemerocallis, more commonly known as daylilies, is a genus of flowering plants originating from Eurasia and Asia that includes numerous species and cultivars. They have a long history of cultivation and have become popular coastal plants worldwide for their stunning blooms and easy-to-grow nature.

One of the main reasons why daylilies are popular UK coastal plants is their excellent salt tolerance. They can withstand the salt-laden air and occasional salt spray that are common near the coast, allowing them to flourish where other plants may struggle to survive. Furthermore, daylilies are renowned for their hardiness and ability to tolerate various growing conditions. They can thrive in different soil types and still produce abundant blooms.

Speaking of blooms, the vibrant flowers of daylilies are a standout feature. They come in various colours, including dazzling yellows, fiery oranges, rich reds, and soft pastels. The trumpet-shaped flowers open for just one day, but multiple flower stalks emerge over an extended blooming period, ensuring a continuous display of colour throughout the season. 

It is important to provide them with the right growing conditions if you want to grow daylilies successfully in a coastal garden:

  • Sunlight – Daylilies thrive in full sun to partial shade. Provide them at least six hours of direct sunlight daily for optimum growth and abundant blooms. However, they can tolerate some shade, especially in hotter coastal regions.
  • Soil Conditions – Daylilies prefer well-draining soil with a slightly acidic to neutral pH level (around 6.0 to 7.0). Amend the soil with organic matter, such as compost, to improve drainage and fertility. Sandy or loamy soils commonly found in coastal areas are generally suitable for daylilies.
  • Planting – Plant daylilies in early spring or early autumn when the soil is workable. Dig a hole wide and deep enough to accommodate the plant’s roots. Place the daylily plant in the hole, spreading out the roots, and backfill with soil, firming it gently around the plant. Space multiple daylilies around 45-60 cm (18-24 inches) apart to allow for proper air circulation and growth.
  • Watering Needs – While daylilies are relatively drought-tolerant once established, regular watering during the initial growth period is essential. Water deeply to encourage strong root development. Once established, daylilies can rely on natural rainfall, but supplemental watering during prolonged dry spells can benefit their overall health and flowering performance.
  • Maintenance – Daylilies are generally low-maintenance plants. Remove spent blooms and dead foliage regularly to maintain a tidy appearance. Divide clumps every three to five years to prevent overcrowding and promote better blooming.

11. Syringa vulgaris

Syringa vulgaris, commonly known as lilac, originates in Eastern Europe and Asia. These areas have cultivated these deciduous shrubs for centuries due to their enchanting fragrance and exquisite blooms, making them a beloved addition to gardens worldwide.

Lilacs are well-suited UK coastal plants for several reasons. Firstly, they are known for their hardiness and adaptability to various climates and soil conditions. Lilacs can withstand the challenging coastal environment, including salt spray and winds, making them a reliable choice for gardens near the coast. Another reason lilacs thrive in coastal gardens is their ability to add beauty and fragrance to the landscape. The fragrant blossoms of lilac fill the air with their intoxicating scent, creating a delightful sensory experience.

  • Sunlight – Lilacs thrive in full sun exposure, so choose a location that receives at least six hours of direct sunlight daily.
  • Soil Conditions – Lilacs prefer well-draining soil with a slightly alkaline to neutral pH level. Amend the soil with organic matter, such as compost or well-rotted manure, to improve fertility and drainage.
  • Planting – Dig a hole that is wide and deep enough to accommodate the root ball of the lilac. Backfill the hole with soil and organic matter mixture, ensuring the top of the root ball is level with or slightly above the ground. Space multiple lilacs at least 6-12 feet apart to allow for proper air circulation and growth.
  • Watering – Provide regular watering, especially during dry periods, to keep the soil evenly moist. Avoid overwatering to prevent waterlogged conditions.
  • Mulching – Apply a layer of organic mulch, such as wood chips or straw, around the base of the lilac to conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature.
  • Pruning – Prune lilacs after flowering, removing any dead or damaged wood and shaping the plant as desired. Avoid heavy pruning, as it may reduce blooming in the following year.
  • Fertilisation – Apply a balanced slow-release fertiliser in early spring to promote healthy growth and flowering. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for application rates.
  • Pest and Disease Control – Monitor the lilac for common pests, such as aphids or powdery mildew, and take appropriate measures for control, such as using insecticidal soaps or fungicides if necessary.
  • Winter Protection – In colder coastal regions, protect the lilac from harsh winter conditions by mulching around the base and wrapping the plant with burlap to shield it from freezing temperatures and drying winds.

12. Scots Pine

scots pine tree

Scots Pine, scientifically known as Pinus sylvestris, is a coniferous tree native to Europe, including Scotland, hence its common name. It has a rich history and is one of the world’s most widely distributed pine species. Scots Pine is known for its hardiness, adaptability, and distinctive appearance, making it an excellent choice for coastal gardens or coastal regions.

One of the main reasons why Scots Pine works well in coastal gardens is its ability to tolerate harsh coastal conditions. These trees have evolved to withstand strong coastal winds, salt spray, and sandy or gravelly soils commonly found near the coast. In addition, Scots Pine’s dense, evergreen foliage helps buffer the wind and create a more sheltered environment, protecting other plants in the garden.

Moreover, Scots Pine adds a touch of natural beauty to coastal landscapes. They have an attractive pyramidal shape with straight trunks and rugged bark that develops attractive orange-red tones with age. The vibrant green needles of the tree provide a pleasant backdrop and a sense of visual interest throughout the year, contributing to the overall aesthetic appeal of coastal gardens.

To grow Scots Pine successfully in a coastal garden, consider the following guidelines:

  • Site Selection – Choose a location that provides full sun exposure for optimal growth and development.
  • Soil Conditions – Scots Pine prefers well-draining soils. Coastal gardens often have sandy or gravelly soils, which are suitable for this species. However, amending the soil with organic matter can help improve fertility and moisture retention.
  • Watering – Scots Pine is relatively drought-tolerant once established but will benefit from regular watering during dry periods, especially in the first few years of growth. Ensure proper watering to promote healthy root development.
  • Pruning – Minimal pruning is necessary for the Scots Pine. Remove any dead, damaged, or diseased branches as needed. Avoid heavy pruning, as it can disrupt the natural shape and growth habit of the tree.
  • Mulching – Apply a layer of organic mulch around the base of the tree to conserve soil moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature.
  • Protection – Scots Pine is generally hardy, but young trees may benefit from protection against strong winds and salt spray, especially in exposed coastal areas. Consider using windbreaks or barriers to shield them during their initial growth stages.

Choosing From The Best Coastal Plants In The UK

UK coastal plants are undeniably unique and beautiful, perfect for blending in with the coastal environment or bringing a touch of fun to other garden styles. By embracing these plants in our gardens and landscapes, we connect with the natural splendour of the seaside and contribute to preserving these unique species. So, start planting your favourite bursting seaside blooms or edible coastal plants to celebrate our coastal shores no matter where you live. 

FAQs

What Are The Best Trees for Coastal Areas in the UK?

Several trees thrive in coastal areas of the UK due to their ability to withstand salt spray, strong winds, and sandy soils. Some of the best trees for coastal areas in the UK include Scots Pine, Holm Oak, Monterey Cypress, Sea Buckthorn and Willow.

What Are The Yellow Seaside Flowers In The UK?

One of the most iconic yellow seaside flowers in the UK is the Common Gorse. However, other common yellow seaside flowers in the UK include Sea Rocket, Evening Primrose, Thrift and Sea Mayweed. 

What Plants Are In The Sea Cliff?

Sea cliffs host a unique assortment of plant life that has adapted to thrive in challenging coastal conditions. Some common plants found on sea cliffs in the UK include Sea Thrift, Rock Samphire, Sea Campion and Sea Kale.

How Do You Make A Coastal Garden?

To create a coastal garden, consider the following steps:
Select coastal-tolerant plants: Choose plants that are well-suited to the coastal environment, including salt-tolerant varieties and those that can withstand strong winds. Refer to the list of UK coastal plants in the article for inspiration.
Create windbreaks: Install windbreaks, such as fences, hedges, or trellises, to protect your garden from strong coastal winds. This will create a more sheltered microclimate for your plants to thrive.
Choose well-draining soil: Coastal areas often have sandy or gravelly soils, which drain quickly. To improve moisture retention and fertility, ensure your garden soil has good drainage by adding organic matter, such as compost.
Incorporate coastal elements: Embrace the coastal theme by incorporating elements like driftwood, pebbles, and seashells into your garden design. These elements add a touch of authenticity and enhance the coastal atmosphere.

Resources

Burncoose Nursery. (n.d.). Cynara – Growing Guide. Retrieved from: https://www.burncoose.co.uk/site/content.cfm?ref=Cynara+-+Growing+Guide  [accessed 22/06/23]

Royal Horticultural Society. (n.d.). Hemerocallis – Growing Guide. Retrieved from: https://www.rhs.org.uk/plants/hemerocallis/growing-guide [accessed 22/06/23]

Clean Coasts. (n.d.). A Practical Guide to Marram Grass Planting. Retrieved from: http://cleancoasts.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/04/A-Practical-Guide-to-Marram-Grass-Planting-.pdf [accessed 22/06/23]

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